Relevant provisions of the Criminal Code, for instance, embody intentional infliction of major bodily harm, minor bodily hurt, or bodily hurt to a lesser degree. After registering a case of violence with the authorities, victims of violence can get hold of a protection order from regulation enforcement companies, among other remedies. Tajikistan’s Constitution, adopted in November 1994, offers for equal rights between men and women and equal rights to spouses within the case of divorce. Violence against women in Tajikistan is pervasive, though precise figures do not exist as a result of underreporting, the shortage of a government-organized system of knowledge collection, and an absence of disaggregated data designating the connection of the perpetrator to the sufferer. Child marriage tends to restrict girls’ access to training and employment outdoors the home.

Human Rights Watch’s interviews revealed that always the whole construction of the qishloq discourages a lady from making a complaint to the authorities about violence in the house. Human Rights Watch discovered that even employees at organizations tasked with implementing the Family Violence Law may reinforce the idea that women should stay silent about home abuse. In many instances, they advise their clients to not take their instances to the police. Preservation of family unity is highly valued, and Tajik society strongly stigmatizes divorced women, perceiving them as having lower societal status. Human Rights Watch interviewed women who were nonetheless living with their abusers, survivors of violence now in shelters, and others who have been compelled to return to live in their mother and father’ houses due to the lack of another different. The lack of reasonably priced housing in addition to lengthy-term shelters was a important problem in every state of affairs. In a meeting with Human Rights Watch, representatives of the CWFA recognized that the lack of shelters is a significant issue in Tajikistan and that 4 shelters for a rustic of almost 9 million folks is much too few.

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The male-dominant culture prevents women, particularly those that live in remote areas, from accessing details about the Family Violence Law, a lot less reporting the violence they’re experiencing. Authorities ought to amend the Family Violence Law to appoint a transparent focus for its implementation at a ministerial stage. In addition, the government should issue a decree appointing an agency, ideally the CWFA, that might be responsible for the systematic assortment and evaluation of statistical info concerning the Family Violence Law’s implementation.

Like so many families in Tajikistan, Zebo’s marriage was unregistered with the state, carried out solely through a non secular ceremony . Zebo was the second spouse of two married to her husband, dwelling in a separate residence from his other household. Often, the legal professionals and activists said, the police fail to even tell survivors concerning the possibility of seeking a household safety order or submitting a felony criticism. Victims of violence face multiple barriers to even getting the attention of law enforcement. Lawyers and activists who assist survivors file complaints stated that, based mostly on their experience, as soon as police are concerned in a case, they almost always try to resolve it solely through couples counseling or mediation, aiming to get the abuser to vow future good habits.

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The decree should present clear guidance on roles and responsibilities of varied ministries in implementing the legislation. Under the Family Violence Law, the CWFA is formally the lead company tasked with coordinating other agencies to implement the law’s provisions. But it solely holds the status of a committee somewhat than a full-fledged ministry, making it onerous within Tajikistan’s hierarchical government to effectively oversee the activities of other ministries, such as the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Implementation of the regulation is hampered by an absence of clear instructions, understanding of the legislation, and budget allocation for presidency agencies to meet their obligations to implement the legislation.

Even in Dushanbe, the capital, and in the nation’s second city of Khujand, in northern Tajikistan, Human Rights Watch interviewed several women who reached assist solely by way of coincidence, luck, or the kindness of strangers. However, experts and survivors of home abuse told Human Rights Watch that even the place providers for survivors do exist, people are often unaware of the obtainable sources.

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While the Family Violence Law recognizes that victim support facilities offering quick, short-term shelter are needed, the regulation doesn’t tackle the need for longer-term shelters to guard survivors and help them to escape abusive relationships. Art. 17 of the law calls for the institution of “medical and social rehabilitation” facilities for victims, with expenses paid by the offender. Although the regulation states that help centers should present temporary shelter, solely the 9 victim assist rooms have the capacity to offer very momentary shelter, every with beds for less than two adults and one baby. Victim support rooms are sometimes situated within existing hospital wards and provide temporary, short time period shelter, usually only in instances of extreme physical injury. Following multiple beatings and experiences of domestic violence, Tabassum’s in-legal guidelines convinced her to carry out one other religious marital ceremony with her abuser, despite the fact that he had earlier tried to divorce her. The authorities should work to make all members of the general public aware of what safety orders are and how they can be obtained, and should ensure quick implementation of the provisions of the legislation designed to make it simpler to acquire a protection order.

Another main shortcoming of the Family Violence Law and other associated laws is that they don’t criminalize spousal rape. Spousal rape is rarely reported in Tajikistan due to social stigma, yet interviewees and advocates advised Human Rights Watch that perpetrators of sexual violence are overwhelmingly a woman’s present or former companion. Opponents of criminalizing domestic violence argue that it is pointless as a result of the Tajik Criminal Code provides adequate protection to victims.

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Despite the bodily abuse she suffered, she says she wishes her husband would come back and provide monetary help to her and her kids. In a 2012 resolution on elimination of violence against women, the UN General Assembly urged member states to make sure that female survivors of violence are offered needed legal representation as a part of guaranteeing their full access to both civil and felony justice systems.

She left their home in northern Tajikistan and sought assist from an NGO that assists victims of domestic violence but was unable to convey her teenage son. Mohsafar finally stayed in an abusive relationship together with her husband for greater than 10 years till he moved to Russia and married a girl there. Mohsafar is now managing a small store in her village but struggles to pay rent.

She told Human Rights Watch that the local prosecutor’s workplace and police threw her out of their offices when she came to report the rape. Only after hiring a neighborhood lawyer to assist her was Parvona in a position to get hold of a forensic examination to prove she had been raped. There are few attorneys in Tajikistan and even much less access to free legal help. Following legislative amendments introduced in 2015 to the legislation on attorneys, the independence of Tajikistan’s legal occupation was restricted and numerous attorneys were deprived of their authorized licenses or excluded in different ways from working towards regulation. Prior to the adjustments, Tajikistan had approximately 2,000 registered attorneys. Following the passage of the brand new regulation, fewer than 500 are in a position to practice regulation for a population of nearly 9 million, a ratio of roughly one lawyer per 18,000 inhabitants. Her husband, Faridun, was abusive from the start of the marriage, even throughout pregnancy.