The purpose of the research was to judge present data, threat behaviour and attitudes to voluntary counselling and testing concerning HIV/AIDS among pregnant women in Semey, Kazakhstan. This is necessary, considering that the gateway for prevention of mom-to-baby transmission is voluntary counselling and testing for HIV. In current years efforts has been made to cover all pregnant women with full prevention services and the mom-to-youngster prevention is a big a part of the Kazakhstan HIV programme . In 2005 the antenatal care coverage were estimated to 91% and the number of women counselled on prevention of mom-to-youngster transmission services had been .

However, most of the women in Semey have been positive to prevention strategies for mom-to-baby transmission after hearing about it. We collected 226 questionnaires in a consecutive sample from a population on 520 pregnant women. Central Asia has some of the rapidly rising HIV prevalence on the planet.

Search For “kazakhstan Women” In These Categories

In addition to the questionnaires, we interviewed 21 of the examine participants. In all interviews an interpreter was essential; because of this an area scholar was always present to help us to ask questions and to take notes. The questionnaires were translated to Kazakh and Russian and the women got questionnaires in the language they most popular. The study was performed between June 14 and July 25, 2007 in Semey, Kazakhstan. We collected 226 questionnaires from a consecutive pattern of pregnant women attending four different antenatal clinics at totally different components of the city. During a yr there are round 1000 pregnancies in Semey adopted at 23 antenatal clinics. At the included clinics 520 pregnant women had been registered on the time of the study.

The questionnaire was anonymous with no registration of names, medical knowledge or other personal info. We have a written choice from the Head of the Ethical Committee at Semey, Kazakhstan that no further ethical evaluation is required. With the anonymous design and no registration of non-public delicate data, the research doesn’t must be reviewed by the Swedish Ethical Committee according to their guidelines. No info was collected from the women who refused to participate. The women were informed that their participation and the completion of the questionnaire have been entirely voluntarily and that they had been free to not answer the questions they found too private. The data given can be saved confidentially and no names or identifying information would seem in publications.

Rural Women In Kazakhstan: Double Vulnerability

In basic women, with larger levels of education have been higher than women with low training at correctly excluding and together with transmission routes of HIV/AIDS. The differences were significant for “shaking palms/hugging/living in the same house”, “changing garments with someone who has HIV/AIDS”, “sexual intercourses with condom”, and “sharing needles while injecting drugs”.

In addition to those groups, the epidemic is spreading amongst different susceptible groups like youth, migrants and truck drivers. About three-quarters of the brand new HIV diagnoses is among unemployed folks. Currently the two major routes of HIV transmission in Kazakhstan are injecting drug use and sexual transmission. Pregnancy has not been proven to have any adverse effects on women with asymptomatic HIV infection . It appears that advanced HIV an infection, nonetheless, can increase the danger for spontaneous abortion or untimely delivery . The pregnant women in Semey have poor knowledge about particular mom-to-child HIV transmission and do not know concerning the means of decreasing mom-to-child HIV an infection.


Of our responders sixty five% (134/206) answered that there are methods to protect oneself against sexually transmitted HIV/AIDS. Of the ladies who answered sure to this question, fifty five% (seventy four/134) specified methods to protect oneself. Note that the ladies were allowed to offer a couple of way of protection. Regarding from whom the women thought they’d get assist if they were discovered to be HIV positive, the far commonest answer was mother, with fifty one%. Only 45% thought that they’d get assist from healthcare personnel, and even fewer, 21%, mentioned they’d get help from their fathers, partners 33% or pals 23%. A comparability between Kazakh and Russian women showed that extra Russian women expected to get support from moms and companions, whereas Kazakh women extra usually mentioned pals and healthcare personnel.

The variety of HIV infected women was estimated to fewer than 500 and of these 47 (9%) acquired antiretroviral therapy for PMTCT . In Kazakhstan, people are estimated to reside with HIV/AIDS which implies a prevalence of 0.1–zero.2% . The HIV epidemic is strongly concentrated to vulnerable populations, like injecting drug users, sex staff and prisoners.

The goal of this study was to evaluate present information, danger behaviour and attitudes to voluntary counselling and testing regarding HIV/AIDS among pregnant women in Semey, Kazakhstan. Their “Women in Cybersecurity” coaching course is designed to extend the number of women in the field, encouraging them to broaden their potential and create role fashions for future cybersecurity professionals.

To the open query concerning the principle method HIV/AIDS is spread from one particular person to a different many women gave several answers, the most typical being “sexual contact” given by 76% (122/160). The second commonest reply was blood transfusion, with 30% (48/one hundred sixty). Nineteen p.c (30/a hundred and sixty) wrote intravenous drug use/needle sharing and three% (5/160) wrote they didn’t know. Russian women considerably more typically attended Special College (sixty six%; ninety five% CI 51–eighty%) in comparison with 35% (ninety five% CI 28–forty one%) for Kazakh women. Kazakh women had a tendency to more typically attend University/Institute/Academy.

Of the entire group 41% (88/215) of the ladies wanted to be tested for HIV/AIDS. Fifty-9 p.c (124/211) of the ladies said they’d inform the healthcare personnel in the event that they have been found to be HIV positive, 35% (seventy four/211) that they would kazakh woman tell their mothers and 32% (sixty eight/211) their partners. There was additionally a tendency for the Russian women to say extra typically that they might inform their mothers, but the difference was throughout the margins of error.

Of the 226 women, 76.2% (one hundred seventy/223) had been Kazakh, 18.4% (forty one/223) Russian, 2.2% (5/223) Tatar, 1.8% (four/223) German and 1.three% (three/223) others. The three women who did not reply the question about their ethnicity were excluded when we referred our outcomes to ethnicity. Of the Kazakh women who answered the question about faith, a hundred% had been Muslim. Among the Russian women who answered the query about faith, 93% have been Christian Orthodox. Of the entire group seventy nine.7% (173/217) were Muslim, 18.9% (forty one/217) Christian Orthodox and 1.4% (three/217) different. No vital affiliation was found between occupation and ethnic origin. When it involves training among the many women we check with extra file 1.